Two And Two Make Four. By Simon Donaldson

By Simon Donaldson

If we have four objects—say A, B, C, D—there are just three ways of dividing them into pairs:

(AB)(CD) (AC)(BD) (AD)(BC).

The salient property is that 3 is less than 4. This simple fact expresses something special about the number 4. For example if we take 6 objects there are 10 ways to divide them into triples; there are 35 ways to divide 8 objects into quadruples, 126 ways to divide 10 objects into quintuples and so on. We will discuss two famous applications of this special property of 4: one going back five centuries and one underlying important concepts in contemporary differential geometry and physics.


Photo Michael N. Meyer/Picture More Business

To read the full article in PDF form click here.


Intersection of conics. Image Simon Donaldson



Hermann Grassman. Image Wikipedia


Jim against Maxwell's Equations

Jim Simons speaks at the Dedication of the Iconic Wall, standing before Maxwell’s Equations. May 8, 2015. Photo Stony Brook University